holy ceremonies. Apart from, its function as property for holy ceremonies,
we can also regard the nekara as a holy musical instrument. That
is to say, this musical instrument Would be sounded only in religious
ceremonies to accompany religious dances that were magical and sacral
at this time were still very simple, in harmony with the simplicity
of the musical instruments. The dances just imitated the motion
of nature by movements of the hands and head and by stamping the
addition to this, we can imagine that the development, the type
and the characteristics of dances ini Java, Bali, Sumatra and other
regions of Indonesia were all the same during this Period of Primitive
Period of Feudal Seciety can be subdivided into four shorter periods,
viz. Hindu-Indonesian period, Islamic period, tile period of Western
Invasion and the period of the Indonesia national Movement.
The cultural growth of the indonesian people obviously improved
gradually from the beginning of this Period of Feudal, Society,
though the products of culture were restricted to the interests
of a special class, the kings and the nobility, and only in connection
with the religious life and court entertainment.
the four periods of feudal society, dancing in Indonesia also underwent
development in keeping with the types of society of these periods.
Hindu-Indonesian period came into existence after trade between
Indonesia and India had brought about cultural contact. No one knows
precisely when direct contact was first made, except that it preceded
the Christian era, possibly by several centuries.
assimilation of Indian cultural elements in the Indonesian culture,
and also the results of research into Indonesia's material culture
at this time indicate that the Indonesian culture was then already
well advanced on the path to civilisation. Certainly it was at such
a level as made acculturation possible. This fusion of cultures
thus took place completely free from any compulsion, because the
elements of Indian culture which were assimilated were one which
did not conflict with the identity of the Indonesian people that
was already established.
should be noted that, although the term Hindu -Indonesian is used
the Buddhist religion also played a major role. No doubt it
thanks to the acculturation process, that Buddhism was able to exist
side by side with the Hindu faith in Indonesia.
The Hindu -Indonesian period begins with the rise of the earliest
Hindu-Indonesian kingdoms, so far as is known today, these were
the Kutei kingdom in East Kalimantan and the Tarumanegara kingdom
in West Java, both of which developed about 400 A.D. After these,
historical records show successive emergence of the following
kingdoms: Old Mataram. in Central Java (8 - 10th century), Sriwijaya
a Buddhist kingdom in South Sumatra, Kahuripan in East Java (10
-1lth century), Kediri in East Java (11 - 13th century), Singhasari
in East Java (13th century), Majapahit in East Java (13 - 15th century)
and Pajajaran in West Java.